Andreotti, V. (2006) ‘Soft versus critical global citizenship education’, Policy and Practice: A Development Education Review, 3 (Autumn), pp. 40-51.

Beck, U. (2000) What is globalisation? Cambridge: Polity Press.

Berlant, L. (2011) Cruel Optimism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Bhagwati, J. (2004) In defence of globalisation. Oxford: Oxford University press.

Biggs, J. (1996) ‘Enhancing teaching through constructive alignment’, Higher Education, 32(3), pp. 347-364.

Biggs, J. and Tang, C. (2007) Teaching for quality learning at university. 3rd edn.

Blommaert, J. (2010) The sociolinguistics of globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Boltanski, L. and Chiapello. E. (2007) The new spirit of capitalism. London and New York: Verso Press.

Bolton, G. (2006) Reflective practice: writing and professional development. 2nd edn. London: Sage.

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Falk (1994) identified five categories of global citizens:

  1. global reformers
  2. elite global business people
  3. global environmental managers
  4. politically conscious regionalists
  5. transnational activists

Boltanski and Chiapello (2007) argue that global participants is a more accurate term than global citizens, since production and consumption are globally diffuse, national identity-eroding activities, and flows of resources and labour are increasingly transnational. Thus, global participation is both the result and product of a “new spirit of capitalism”.

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Castañeda and Selwyn (2018) contend that any discussion of pedagogy requires consideration of all aspects of education, including technology. Most learning theories are of pre-digital heritage. Technology-based learning needs to be fully understood, and the conceptualisation of the design and deployment of technologies in HE must be subject to sustained theorising. Proponents of technological learning must acknowledge the affective aspects of HE; and, similarly, the “hyper-rationalisation” of digital methods and technologies of education must be avoided. The impact of any educational technology must be gauged through its relevance to identity, responsibility, social relations, and accountability, since these are critical to the HE environment and experience. On the matter of engagement, the question of whether digital technologies are disconnecting and alienating (“hyper- individualising”) learners must be asked.

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The research I undertook for the thesis of my fourth MA revealed that blockchain is already disrupting many industries and financial processes. Its impact on/disruption of HE is assured. In 2018, it was only the nature, speed, and degree of that impact/disruption that was unclear. This research stratified the discourse into six highly related subtopics that reveal the interests and predictions of educational and technological experts regarding the nature and degree of blockchain’s disruption of HE.

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